Estrogens are a common medication, but not all of the hormone is absorbed in the body. Some passes through and is flushed down the toilet, ending up in our water system, rivers and lakes where they can have harmful physiological effects on both humans and wildlife, even at very low levels. Consequently, they are an important target for environmental monitoring.
However, estrogens are particularly challenging to analyze, especially as detection is often required in the ng/mL (ppb) to low pg/mL (ppt) range.
In this application note, discover how you can utilize on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with LC-MS/MS for sample enrichment and quantitation of endogenous estrogens, allowing for: