The cell wall components of gram-negative bacteria are designated as endotoxins. They have a hydrophilic polysaccharide and a lipophilic lipid component and are highly heat and pH stable. In mammalian cell cultures that are used to produce biopharmaceuticals, the presence of endotoxins can lead to cell death. For this reason, ultrapure media with levels proven to be below the limits must be used to manufacture biopharmaceuticals or to propagate cell lines or cell cultures.
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